Turbomolecular pumps have always fascinated me. They are a great piece of engineering. They are basically a high speed turbine that does not form a physical seal with the stator, yet can generate ultra high vacuum pressures. This video shows all of the mechanical components that make up a turbomolecular pump and how they fit together.
Now you know the basic construction of a mechanical bearing turbomolecular pump. A brief history of turbopumps along with a description of the pumping principles and how to integrate them into a system are discussed in Understanding Modern Vacuum Technology, available from Amazon.com